This report was produced by Penal Reform International (PRI) and Harm Reduction International (HRI) with financial support from Open Society Foundations and the Robert Carr Fund. The authors would like to thank the following for their contribution to the study: Abdorrahman Boroumand Centre for Human Rights in Iran; Ahsan Ahmad, Yale School of Medicine and the Centre of Excellence for Research in AIDS (CERiA) at University of Malaya; Antigone, Italy; Coalition for People’s Right to Health, Philippines; Institute for Criminal Justice Reform, Indonesia; Justice Project Pakistan; and Project 39A, National Law University, Delhi. The contents of this report are the sole responsibility of PRI and HRI.
1 Among others: Seena Fazel and Jacques Baillargeon, ‘The health of prisoners’, Lancet 377(9769), 2011, p. 956-65. Doi: 10.1016/S0140-
6736(10)61053-7; Stefan Enggist et al. (ed.), ‘Prisons and Health’ (Copenhagen: WHO Regional Office for Europe, 2014), https://www.euro.who.
2 Justice Project Pakistan (2020), ‘COVID-19 and Prisoners’, available at: https://www.jpp.org.pk/covid19-prisoners/ (last accessed 25 October
3 Harm Reduction International (2020), ‘COVID-19, Prisons and Drug Policy: Global Scan March-June 2020’, available at: https://www.hri.global/
covid-19-prison-diversion-measures (last accessed 25 October 2021).
4 UN Statistics Division, Methodology: Geographic Regions’, available at: https://unstats.un.org/unsd/methodology/m49/ (last accessed 25
5 WHO (2021), ‘WHO SAGE Roadmap for Prioritizing Uses of Covid-19 Vaccines in the Context of Limited Supply (Geneva: WHO), https://www.who.
6 Among others: Seena Fazel and Jacques Baillargeon, ‘The health of prisoners’, Lancet 377(9769), 2011, p. 956-65. Doi: 10.1016/S0140-
6736(10)61053-7; Stefan Enggist et al. (ed.), ‘Prisons and Health’ (Copenhagen: WHO Regional Office for Europe, 2014), https://www.euro.
handle/10665/341497/WHO-EURO-2021-2569-42325-58577-eng.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y; Gergo Baranyi, ‘Severe mental illness and
substance use disorders in prisoners in low-income and middle-income countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prevalence studies,Lancet 7(4), 2019, p.461-471. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/S2214-109X(18)30539-4.
7 ‘Statement by the UN expert on the right to health on the protection of people who use drugs during the COVID-19 pandemic’, OHCHR, 16 April 2020, www.ohchr.org/en/NewsEvents/Pages/DisplayNews.aspx?NewsID=25797&LangID=E.
8 Harm Reduction International (2020), ‘The Global State of Harm Reduction 2020’ (London: Harm Reduction International), https://www.hri.global/global-state-of-harm-reduction-2020.
9 Olivia Rope (4 June 2020), ‘Coronavirus and women in detention: A gender-specific approach missing’, Penal Reform International, https://www.penalreform.org/blog/coronavirus-and-women-in-detention-a-gender-specific/.
10 Penal Reform International and Thailand Institute of Justice (2021), ‘Global prison trends 2021’ (London: Penal Reform International), https://cdn.penalreform.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/05/Global-prison-trends-2021.pdf.
11 Gabrielle Beaudry, Daniel Whiting and Seena Fazel (18 February 2021),’Covid-19 in prisons: why prioritising staff and prison populations for vaccination matters’, Penal Reform International, https://www.penalreform.org/blog/covid-19-in-prisons-why-prioritising-staff-and/.
12 UN General Assembly, International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, 16 December 1966, UNTS 993, p.3, Art.12. https://www.ohchr.org/en/professionalinterest/pages/cescr.aspx.
13 UN General Assembly, Resolution 70/175: United Nations Standard Minimum Rules for the Treatment of Prisoners (the Nelson Mandela Rules), UN Doc. A/RES/70/175 (8 January 2016), https://undocs.org/A/RES/70/175.
14 Council of Europe, Recommendation No. R (98) 7 of the Committee of Ministers to Member States concerning the Ethical and Organisational Aspects of Health Care in Prison (8 April 1988), https://rm.coe.int/09000016804fb13c.
15 European Committee for the Prevention of Torture and Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (CPT), 3rd General Report of the CPT’s activities, CPT/Inf (93) 12 (4 June 1993), https://rm.coe.int/1680696a40.
16 Council of Europe, Recommendation Rec(2006)2-rev of the Committee of Ministers to member States of the European Prison Rules, Rec(2006)2-rev (1 July 2020), https://search.coe.int/cm/Pages/result_details.aspx?ObjectId=09000016809ee581.
17 WHO (2021), ‘Advocacy Brief: Why people living and working in detention facilities should be included in national COVID-19 vaccination plans’ (Copenhagen: WHO Regional Office for Europe), https://www.euro.who.int/en/health-topics/health-determinants/prisons-and-health/publications/2021/why-people-living-and-working-in-detention-facilities-should-be-included-in-national-covid-19-vaccination-plans-advocacybrief-2021.
18 Also see: OHCHR (17 December 2020), ‘Human Rights and Access to COVID-19 Vaccines’, OHCHR, https://www.ohchr.org/Documents/Events/
COVID-19_AccessVaccines_Guidance.pdf; WHO (2021), ‘WHO SAGE Roadmap for Prioritizing Uses of Covid-19 Vaccines in the Context of Limited Supply (Geneva: WHO), https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/who-sage-values-framework-for-the-allocation-and-prioritization-of-covid-19-vaccination.
19 UN Subcommittee on Prevention of Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment, Follow-up advice of the Subcommittee to State parties and national preventive mechanisms relating to the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, UN Doc. CAT/OP/12 (18 June 2021), https://undocs.org/CAT/OP/12.
20 Comité Nacional para la Prevención de la Tortura, ‘Recomendación sobre la inclusión efectiva de las personas privadas de la libertad en el plan
de vacunación COVID-19’, Recomendación CNPT 2/2021 (22 April 2021), https://cnpt.gob.ar/wp-content/uploads/2021/04/Recomendacionvacunacion-PPL-CNPT-230121.pdf.
21 Servicio Penitenciatio Federal de Argentina, ‘Reporte semanal de vacunación contra COVID-19’, available at: https://reportecovid.spf.gob.ar/reporteAlojadosVacunados (last accessed 25 October 2021).
22 As of 31 December 2019, according to World Prison Brief: Argentina. Available at: https://www.prisonstudies.org/country/argentina (last accessed 29 October 2021).
23 Email communication with Australia Department for Correctional Services dated 8 July 2021. On file with the authors and available upon request.
24 OHCHR and WHO (2008), ‘OHCHR Factsheet no. 31: The Rights to Health’ (Geneva: United Nations), https://www.ohchr.org/documents/publications/factsheet31.pdf.
25 Inside Time (3 May 2021), ‘Prison jabs secrecy’, Inside Time, https://insidetime.org/prison-jabs-secrecy/.
26 Initiative for Economic and Social Rights (7 April 2021), ‘Prioritise Equitable Roll-Out of COVID 19 Vaccines and Strengthen Public Health Systems: Statement on World Health Day’ ISER, https://www.iser-uganda.org/images/downloads/ISER_statement_on_World_Health_Day_2021.pdf.
27 Tanveer Jeewa (22 April 2021). ‘Is the Mauritian COVID-19 vaccine rollout based on a human rights approach?’, Opinio Juris, http://opiniojuris.org/2021/04/22/is-the-mauritian-covid-19-vaccine-rollout-based-on-a-human-rights-approach/.
28 Gobierno de la República de Honduras (26 May 2021), ‘Salud inicia a vacunar contra la Covid-19 privados de libertad de la tercera edad’, Press Release, https://www.salud.gob.hn/site/index.php/component/k2/item/2208-salud-inicia-a-vacunar-contra-la-covid-19-a-privados-de-libertadde-la-tercera-edad.
29 As of 2 September 2020, according to the World Prison Brief: Honduras. Available at https://www.prisonstudies.org/country/honduras (lastaccessed 29 October 2021).
30 Mahmoud Abdel Radi (18 May 2021), ‘For the first time the Ministry of Interior launches a campaign to vaccinate prisoners against theCoronavirus’ [translated], Youm7, https://bit.ly/2ZkB9z7.
31 Amnesty International (29 June 2021), ‘Egypt: Haphazard and flawed Covid-19 vaccine rollout fails to prioritize most at-risk’, Press Release,https://www.amnesty.org/en/latest/press-release/2021/06/egypt-haphazard-and-flawed-covid-19-vaccine-rollout-fails-to-prioritize-most-at-risk/.
32 Email communication with response of Federal Department of Justice and Police FDJP dated 24 August 2021. On file with the authors and available upon request.
33 U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, ‘COVID-19 Vaccines Distribution: The Process’, available at: https://www.hhs.gov/coronavirus/covid-19-vaccines/distribution/index.html (last accessed 25 October 2021).
34 Morgan Maner, ‘An Analysis of Interim COVID-19 Vaccination Plans, The Covid Prison Project, https://covidprisonproject.com/blog/data/dataanalysis/an-analysis-of-interim-covid-19-vaccination-plans/ (last accessed 21 October 2021).
35 Reproduced with consent of the author, from Morgan Maner, ‘An Analysis of Interim COVID-19 Vaccination Plans, The Covid Prison Project,https://covidprisonproject.com/blog/data/data-analysis/an-analysis-of-interim-covid-19-vaccination-plans/ (last accessed 21/10/2021).
36 Europris, ‘COVID-19 Feedback Collection 16 June 2021’, https://www.europris.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/06/Feedback-collection-June-16.pdf.
37 CNN Philippines (14 April 2021), ‘CHR calls for inclusion of inmates in COVID-19 vaccine priority list’, CNN Philippines, https://cnnphilippines.com/news/2021/4/14/CHR-inmates-covid-vaccine-priority-list.html.
38 Lian Buan (18 October 2021), ‘Only 10% of Philippine convicts have received COVID-19 Vaccines’, Rappler, https://www.rappler.com/nation/bureau-corrections-report-vaccinated-convicts-philippines-october-18-2021.
39 Luxemburger Wort (29 March 2021), ‘Une vaccination prioritaire aussi pour les détenus’, Luxemburger Wort, https://www.wort.lu/fr/luxembourg/une-vaccination-prioritaire-aussi-pour-les-detenus-6061dbd4de135b923619cb4a.
40 Europris, ‘COVID-19 Feedback Collection 16 June 2021’, https://www.europris.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/06/Feedback-collection-June-16.pdf.
41 Bangkok Post (1 June 2021), ‘Ministry requests vaccines for prisons’, Bangkok Post, https://www.bangkokpost.com/thailand/general/2125151/ministry-requests-vaccines-for-prisons.
42 Europris, ‘COVID-19 Feedback Collection 16 June 2021’, https://www.europris.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/06/Feedback-collection-June-16.pdf.
43 Justine Chevalier (5 February 2021), ‘Covid-19: La campagne de vaccination a débuté dans les prisons’, BFM TV, https://www.bfmtv.com/policejustice/covid-19-la-campagne-de-vaccination-a-debute-dans-les-prisons_AN-202102050249.html#:~:text=Les%20d%C3%A9tenus%20dans%20les%20prisons,au%20minist%C3%A8re%20de%20la%20Justice.
44 Khalid Mejdoup (26 May 2021), ‘Maroc: 40% des prisonniers vaccines contre le coronavirus’, Andalou Agency, https://www.aa.com.tr/fr/afrique/maroc-40-des-prisonniers-vaccin%C3%A9s-contre-le-coronavirus/2255307.
45 Rita Pereira Carvalho (2 June 2021), ‘Task force quer vacinas todos os reclusos com primeira dose em 15 dias’, Sàbado, https://www.sabado.pt/portugal/detalhe/task-force-quer-vacinar-todos-os-reclusos-com-primeira-dose-em-15-dias.
46 Vienna Online (31 March 2021), ‘Unmut unter Justizwachebeamte wegen geimpfter Häftlinge’, Vienna Online, https://www.vienna.at/unmutunter-justizwachebeamte-wegen-geimpfter-haeftlinge/6944764.
47 Among others, see: Nienke Ledegang, ‘Vaccineren in de bajes’, Informatief, https://magazines.dji.nl/djizien/2021/02/vaccinaties.
48 Instituto Naciónal Penitenciario y Carcelario (INPEC) (2 March 2021), ‘Boletín no.15: Vacunación masiva en el Establecimiento Carcelario de Leticia, Press Release, https://www.inpec.gov.co/documents/20143/314650/BOLETIN+INFORMATIVO+No.+15.pdf/31169676-1927-caf0-9dde499f1cd4f453.
49 Europris, ‘COVID-19 Feedback Collection 8 March 2021’, https://www.europris.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/03/Feedback-collection-08-March.pdf.
50 Email communication with local civil society dated 23 July 2021. On file with the authors and available upon request.
51 DALAH (28 December 2020), ‘Israeli minister blocks COVID-19 vaccinations for Palestinian prisoners; Adalah demands decision to be overturned’, ADALAH, https://www.adalah.org/en/content/view/10207.
52 Shelly Kamin-Friedman (14 June 2021), ‘Access to the COVID-19 vaccine in Israel’, Heinrich Böll Stiftung, https://eu.boell.org/en/2021/06/14/access-covid-19-vaccine-israel.
53 The information in this paragraph was collected and compiled by the Abdorrahman Boroumand Centre for Human Rights in Iran: https://www.iranrights.org/.
54 HRANA (24 August 2021), ‘HRANA Report: COVID-19 Vaccinations Underway in Iranian Prisons’, HRANA, https://www.en-hrana.org/hrana-reportcovid-19-vaccinations-underway-in-iranian-prisons/.
55 Interview of Abdorrahman Boroumand Center with source with knowledge of Evin Prison, 25 August 2021. See also: Khabaran (23 August 2021), ‘The Covid vaccine quota in Khuzestan is over’ [translated], Khabaran, https://khabarban.com/a/32891174; Khabaran (24 August 2021),
‘New shipment of corona vaccine in Khuzestan’ [translated], Khabaran, https://khabarban.com/a/32896793; Tasnim News (21 August 2021),
‘Identification of 767 new coronary heart disease patients in Sistan and Baluchestan / Barekat vaccine on the agenda’ [translated], Tasnim News,https://www.tasnimnews.com/fa/news/1400/05/31/2558366/.
56 United Nations (19 September 2021), ‘COVID Vaccines: Widening inequality and millions vulnerable’, UN News, https://news.un.org/en/story/2021/09/1100192.
57 UNDP, ‘Global Dashboard for Vaccine Equity: Vaccine Access’, available at: https://data.undp.org/vaccine-equity/ (last accessed 6 October 2021).
58 Afghanistan, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Chile, Cyprus, Dominican Republic, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Kazakhstan, Malta, Morocco, Nepal, Netherlands, Portugal, Singapore, Slovenia, Spain, and Switzerland. 59 Gobierno de Guatemala (2 August 2021), ‘Inicia vacunación en privados de libertad, entre los rangos de 60 a 80 años y que padezcan enfermedades crónicas’, Press Release, https://dgsp.gob.gt/inicia-vacunacion-en-privados-de-libertad-entre-los-rangos-de-60-a-80-anos-y-quepadezcan- enfermedades-cronicas/. 60 Wayne J. Pitts and Christopher S. Inkpen, ‘Assessing the Effects of COVID-19 in Prisons in the Northern Triangle of Central America’, Victims & Offenders 15(7-8), 2020, 1044-1061. Doi: 10.1080/15564886.2020.1828211. 61 The vaccination campaign in Burundi began on 18 October 2021: Reuters (19 October 2021), ‘Burundi launches COVID-19 vaccination drive’, Reuters, https://www.reuters.com/world/africa/burundi-launches-covid-19-vaccination-drive-2021-10-18/. 62 Europris, ‘COVID-19 Feedback Collection 2 August 2021’, https://www.europris.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/08/Feedback-collection-August-2. pdf.
63 Terrence McCoy and Heloísa Traiano (9 May 2021), ‘Brazil’s unexpected plan to vaccinate the homeless, prisoners and descendants of enslaved
Africans first is coming undone’, The Washington Post, https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/2021/05/09/coronavisus-brazil-vaccineindigenous-quilombo/.
64 Justice Project Pakistan (2020), ‘COVID-19 and Prisoners’, available at: https://www.jpp.org.pk/covid19-prisoners/ (last accessed 25 October 2021).
65 Dhaka Tribune (24 January 2021), ‘Bangladesh’s vaccination plan unveiled’, Dhaka Tribune, https://www.dhakatribune.com/health/coronavirus/2021/01/24/bangladesh-s-vaccination-plan-unveiled.
66 Mohammad Jamil Khan and Shaheen Mollah (26 February 2021), ‘Plan to vaccinate 15k convicts in jail in first phase’, The Daily Star, https://www.thedailystar.net/frontpage/news/plan-vaccinate-15k-convicts-jail-first-phase-2051185.
67 Ali Asif Shawon (4 August 2021), ‘No decision on inoculating prisoners yet’, Dhaka Tribune, https://www.dhakatribune.com/bangladesh/nation/2021/08/04/no-decision-on-inoculating-prisoners-yet.
68 Ellen Albertz (7 July 2021), ‘Namibia: We’re Not Vaccinated – Hardap Inmates’, AllAfrica, https://allafrica.com/stories/202107070605.html.
69 Human Rights Watch (1 September 2021), ‘Australia: Prisoners Denied Vaccine Access’, Human Rights Watch, https://www.hrw.org/news/2021/09/02/australia-prisoners-denied-vaccine-access.
70 Michael McGowan and Elias Visontay (4 September 2021), ‘Covid vaccines earmarked for NSW prison inmates diverted to HSC students’, The Guardian, https://www.theguardian.com/australia-news/2021/sep/04/covid-vaccines-earmarked-for-nsw-prison-inmates-diverted-to-hscstudents.
71 Inter-American Commission on Human Rights, COVID-19 vaccines and inter-American human rights obligations. Resolution 01/2021, https://www.oas.org/en/iachr/decisions/pdf/Resolucion-1-21-en.pdf
72 Anna Nillson (15 April 2021), ‘Is Mandatory Vaccination Against COVID-19 Justifiable Under the European Convention on Human Rights?’, Global
Campus of Human Rights, https://gchumanrights.org/preparedness/article-on/is-mandatory-vaccination-against-covid-19-justifiable-under-theeuropean-convention-on-human-rights.html.
73 Mohammed Dhaysane (22 June 2021), ‘Djibouti makes COVID-19 vaccination compulsory’, Andalou Agency, https://www.aa.com.tr/en/africa/djibouti-makes-covid-19-vaccination-compulsory/2281266.
74 Andrei Dumitrescu (8 January 2021), ‘Scandal in one of the largest prisons in Romania, after several employees refused to get vaccinated. ‘This
is Blackmail!’ (EXCLUSIVE)’ [translated], Gandul, https://www.gandul.ro/dezvaluiri/scandal-intr-una-dintre-cele-mai-mari-inchisori-din-romaniadupa-ce-mai-multi-angajati-au-refuzat-sa-se-vaccineze-acesta-este-santaj-exclusiv-19566632.
75 Angela Stella (19 September 2021), ‘Allarme carceri, un terzo degli agenti non è vaccinato’, Il Riformista, https://www.ilriformista.it/allarmecarceri-un-terzo-degli-agenti-non-e-vaccinato-248346/.
76 See for example, Melissa Coade (21 September 2021), ‘Mandating COVID jabs for prison officers in NSW not enough, PSA says’, The Mandarin, https://www.themandarin.com.au/169318-mandating-covid-jabs-for-prison-officers-in-nsw-not-enough-psa-says/.
77 Ministry of Health of Latvia, ‘Priority groups of persons to be vaccinated’ [translated], available at: https://www.vm.gov.lv/lv/prioritarivakcinejamo-personu-grupas (last accessed 25 October 2021).
78 Europris, ‘COVID-19 Feedback Collection 21 September 2021’, https://www.europris.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/09/Feedback-collection-September-21.pdf.
79 Email communication with Ministry of Justice of the Republic of Latvia (Submission 16.06.2021 reg. No. 1-21/4629). On file with the authors and available upon request.
80 Europris, ‘COVID-19 Feedback Collection 21 September 2021’, https://www.europris.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/09/Feedback-collection-September-21.pdf.
82 Email communication with Latvian Prison Administration dated 22 June 2021. On file with the authors and available upon request.
83 Karoliina Paananen (24 June 2021), ‘Just over half of inmates want coronavirus vaccine – Lifting restrictions and new fines increase risk of infection’ [translated], Suomen Kuvalehti, https://suomenkuvalehti.fi/jutut/kotimaa/vain-hieman-yli-puolet-vangeista-haluaa-koronarokotteenrajoitusten- purku-ja-uudet-sakkovangit-nostavat-tartuntariskia/. 84 Ekhatimerini-com (1 July 2021), ‘Greece starts to vaccinate prison inmates’, Ekhatimerini-com, https://www.ekathimerini.com/news/1163781/ greece-starts-to-vaccinate-prison-inmates/. 85 World Prison Brief: Greece. Available at: https://www.prisonstudies.org/country/greece (last accessed 25 October 2021). 86 Jamaica Observer (29 April 2021), ‘Prison inmates to start getting COVID-19 vaccines this week’, Jamaica Observer, https://www.jamaicaobserver. com/news/prison-inmates-to-start-getting-covid-19-vaccines-this-week_220211. 87 Loop News (27 July 2021), ‘Vaccine hesitancy high in prisons; Pulchan to start education drive’, Loop News, https://tt.loopnews.com/content/ vaccine-hesitancy-high-prisons-pulchan-start-education-drive. 88 Molnár Szabina (28 April 2021), ‘Vaccination of the prisoners has begun’ [translated], Index, https://index.hu/belfold/2021/04/28/koronavirusmagyarorszag- sinopharm-egeszsegugy-oltas-kinai-vakcina/. 89 Il Riformista (8 Aprile 2021), ‘Partono le vaccinazioni ai detenuti campani: “È un diritto, un dovere e un obbligo morale”’, Il Riformista, https:// www.ilriformista.it/partono-le-vaccinazioni-ai-detenuti-campani-e-un-diritto-un-dovere-e-un-obbligo-morale-209515/?refresh_ce. 90 Luxemburger Wort (29 March 2021), ‘Une vaccination prioritaire aussi pour les détenus’, Luxemburger Wort, https://www.wort.lu/fr/luxembourg/ une-vaccination-prioritaire-aussi-pour-les-detenus-6061dbd4de135b923619cb4a. 91 Conor Gallagher (14 August 2021), ‘Coronavirus: All prisoners have now been offered vaccine’, The Irish Times, https://www.irishtimes.com/news/ crime-and-law/coronavirus-all-prisoners-have-now-been-offered-vaccine-1.4646541. been vaccinated). In Italy, on the first day of the roll-out in the city of Salerno, 11 people in prison were vaccinated, and a further 19 people declined.89 In Luxembourg, during one of the first rounds of vaccination in prison, only one third of people in prison opted in. Allegedly, one of the reasons for such high hesitancy was the fact that prison officers had not been vaccinated yet, leading to concerns about the safety of the vaccine. While more research is needed on this topic, these figures raise doubts about the availability, accessibility, and quality of targeted, evidencebased information on COVID-19 vaccines received by people in prison,90 and on the opportunities provided to make an informed and evidence-based decision regarding vaccination. In Ireland, for example, health officials initially found people in prison had little knowledge of the various vaccines and their effects, which was leading to some apprehension. In response, the Irish Prison Service and the Red Cross produced an information video on the vaccines which was broadcasted on in-cell television to help allay concerns. By mid-August 2021, all of the prison population (3,822 people) had been offered vaccination, with uptake of about 84%.91 It is also not clear whether there is a distinction between the types of vaccinations that are offered to people in prison compared to people in the community, whether people in prison are able to make a free and informed choice, and whether this choice impacts their decision-making. For
92 Pouyan Khoshhal (7 August 2021), ‘1.2 Million Doses of Iranian Covid-19 Vaccine Thrown Away over ‘Contamination’’, Iran Wire, https://iranwire.
com/en/special-features/10099; Human Rights Watch (19 August 2021), ‘Iran: Government Mismanagement Compounds COVID-19 Crises’,
Human Rights Watch, https://www.hrw.org/news/2021/08/19/iran-government-mismanagement-compounds-covid-19-crisis.
93 For further discussion on this issue, see: Gabrielle Beaudry, Daniel Whiting and Seena Fazel (18 February 2021),’Covid-19 in prisons: why
prioritising staff and prison populations for vaccination matters’, Penal Reform International, https://www.penalreform.org/blog/covid-19-inprisons-
94 Miriam Berger (15 January 2021), ‘Prisons are covid hot spots. But few countries are prioritizing vaccines for inmates.’, The Washington Post,
95 Rachel Aiello (6 January 2021), ‘Federal inmates to begin receiving COVID-19 vaccines in pilot project’, CTV News, https://www.ctvnews.ca/health/
96 La Repubblica (11 Aprile 2021), ‘Vaccini, Salvini attacca Zingaretti: “Nel Lazio prima ai carcerati? Roba da matti”. Il Garante dei detenuti: “In
Lombardia accade da Marzo”’, La Repubblica, https://www.repubblica.it/politica/2021/04/11/news/vaccini_salvini_zingaretti_lazio_campania_
97 See for example: Michael Hamilton and David Wooding (23 January 2021), ‘Appalling: Serial killer Levi Bellfield, 52, invited for Covid vaccine
ahead of millions of vulnerable Brits’, The Sun, https://www.thesun.co.uk/news/13830789/levi-bellfield-covid-vaccine-vulnerable-brits/.